Getting Started - measure and quantify voids in a solder joint x-ray image

I used ImageJ about a year or so ago to quantify voids in x-ray images of solder joints. Luckily, I prepared a list of the Steps I used previously, but now one of those Steps seems to be out of date. I can still do all of the following Steps;

  1. Open x-ray image in ImageJ
  2. Use Square Select Tool to coral a Target Area
  3. Edit / Clear Outside
  4. Image / Type / 8-bit

But then for my next Step…
5) Process / Binary / Make Binary
… I get stuck at the last part of Step 5 - Make Binary.

I tried using Process / Binary / Threshold but I don’t seem to be getting the same result as before - easily distinguishable (void vs. not void areas).

My next Step…
6) Process / Noise / Despeckle
… seems to still be OK

But then my Final Step…
7) Analyze / Analyze Particles
… now has a few more ‘options’ and again my results are not the same.

By the way, the Analyze Particles options I was using were as follows;

Size (pixel^2) = 0-Infinity
Circularity = 0.00-1.00
Show = Outlines

And, I checked each of these boxes

Display results
Clear results
Add to Manager
Record starts
in situ Show

Any help would be greatly appreciated - especially if anyone know a good way (or has created an ImageJ macro) to measure and quantify voids in a solder joint x-ray image.

Here is a sample image. The ROI is the large area in the center of the image (inside the perimeter array of 20 holes) that is actually made up of 4 separate square areas. I would like to know the void levels in each of the square areas.

Save the image as PNG and just drag it into the text field on the forum. Or click the upload button.

I’m sure you will get help once people have an image to work with!

1 Like

Ok, so regarding your step 5 problem which I assume is the root of your remaining problems… This make binary process is an auto threshold function, as far as I can see the IsoData AT algorithm. I don’t know if this has changed since you used it last, I haven’t used IJ for long.

But there is a simple solution.

Go to Image >> Adjust >> Auto threshold >> Try all (in the dropdown menu).

This shows you all the auto thresholds available. Pick one that works for you, maybe minerror? And then see if you can make this work.

I don’t have time to try more sofisticated methods, but this should at least put you back to your old standard!

Oh, and just out of curiosity. Is this for research or manufacturing or something else? I haven’t seen a solder x-ray before… is it common to have such huge voids?

Hope this helps,


Thanks for the help. I agree that min(error) might be the best, but I don’t see a dropdown menu at all at

Image >> Adjust >> Auto threshold

Guessing that I needed a newer version of ImageJ, I updated to Version 1.51j8. And, it is this Ver that does not appear to have the dropdown menu that you are using.

By the way, Version 1.51j8 (but not my last - which was 1.32j) again offers the Steps Process >> Binary >> Make Binary.

I’m sorry, I should have said. The auto threshold comes with the Fiji distribution.

Hi Richard,

Currently I am trying to calculate voids by using auto cad which takes along time and not that accurate since I am only calculating the larger voids. Were you able to use imageJ for void calculation? I will have an X-ray image just like yours to work with. Appreciate the help.

Thank you

Hi trih1215,

YES – I was, eventually, able to use imageJ for this task but I then handed my work off to another person who developed the task out a bit more.

I would be happy to review my results with you on a phone call – it would be best if you can set up a on-line meeting, so we can also share our screens.




Hi Richard,

I believe I got it working but I still would like to see your results. When are you available for an online meeting? Will Microsoft Team’s work?

Thank you


I think MS Teams would work – not sure thought abut any firewall restrictions but we do use Teams internally. Meeting in the afternoon (I am in Texas) is usually better for me.



Hi Rick,

Sounds good let me try and find you on Teams so I may schedule a meeting.

Thank you

Hi Rick,

Can I get your username for MS Teams so I may schedule an online meeting? Thanks again…

Thank you

It is a pitty that this interesting topics are discussed in the background.
What is the reason?
After receiving help from the forum, @rarnold, it would be nice to share your experience too.


I think my user name is the same as my email:

If that does not work then maybe… UIA38971




Hi Peter,

What can I do differently to avoid discussing in the background?